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Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas with the chemical symbol H. Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements in the universe, but it is not found free in the earth's atmosphere. Usually hydrogen is found in compounds with other elements and can be obtained separated from water.

Physical Properties
  • Hydrogen is a diatomic (H₂) gas at room temperature and under pressure.

  • Its boiling point is -252.87 °C and its freezing point is -259.16 °C.

  • Hydrogen is the lightest element in the atmosphere.


  • Hydrogen can be produced by a number of methods. These include water electrolysis, natural gas reforming, reaction of carbon monoxide and water (liquid hydrogen production).

  • Industrially, it is usually obtained from natural gas (methane).


Areas of Use
  • Chemical Industry: Hydrogen is used as an intermediate in the production of many chemical products. It is especially used in the production of ammonia, methanol and various organic compounds.

  • Energy: Hydrogen is used as an energy carrier. In fuel cells, hydrogen can react with oxygen to produce electrical energy.

  • Metallurgy: Hydrogen is used in metallurgical processes to produce steel and in the reduction of other metals.

  • Aircraft in the Air: Hydrogen can be used in some aircraft, but there are safety concerns because hydrogen is lighter than air and is flammable.

  • Space Exploration: Hydrogen is used in space exploration as rocket fuel. It is often used with liquid oxygen in space launches.


General Feature
  • Hydrogen plays an important role in the "green hydrogen economy" to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by obtaining hydrogen from green energy sources.


  • Because hydrogen is naturally lighter than other gases found in the atmosphere, it tends to accumulate high in the air.

  • Hydrogen can form an explosive mixture when combined with oxygen, so safety precautions must be taken.


Hydrogen is a versatile gas used in a variety of industries, but it brings with it some technical challenges, such as its production and storage. The use of hydrogen produced using green energy sources has significant potential for sustainability.

Laboratuvarda Mühendisi
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